Zachary Parolin and Emma K. Lee, Columbia University |
The average racial composition of closed schools is 25 percentage points less white compared to schools operating in-person (40% versus 65%).
Moreover, closures are more common in schools with a higher share of students who experience homelessness, are of limited English proficiency, are eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch, live in single-parent families, or are racial/ethnic minorities.
Distance learning is more common in high schools and middle schools relative to elementary schools, but disparities in exposure to distance learning are comparable across school type.
Given the potential negative consequences of school closures on educational performance, the vast inequalities in exposure to distance learning portend rising disparities in learning outcomes.ParolinLee-WP-School-Closures-201222
Parolin, Z., & Lee, E. (2020, November 15). Large Socio-Economic, Geographic, and Demographic Disparities Exist in Exposure to School Closures and Distance Learning.